Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) must understand subtle escalation in fatigue, dyspnea, and edema before they are triggered to control worsening status.
Objective: The aim of this paper is to examine if video education of HF danger signs or symptoms recognition and control, developed using symbolic modeling (social cognitive theory), leads to between-group differences in functional status, symptoms, and self-efficacy for managing symptoms at 30-days, all-cause, and HF-related hospitalization, emergency department visits, and death at 30, 90, and 180 days.
Methods: Using a 2-group, randomized controlled, multicenter, single-blind design, patients received video education (VE) plus usual care (UC) or UC alone before hospital discharge. VE patients also had access to content post discharge. Thirty-day functional status, fatigue, dyspnea, and self-efficacy for managing symptoms were assessed using valid, reliable tools. In the analysis, multivariable models were created to compare changes in patient-reported outcomes from baseline to 30-days post discharge and morbidity or mortality outcomes up to 180 days.
Results: Of 369 VE and 377 UC patients enrolled from 7 sites, mean age was 68.0 (SD 12.4) years, and 206 (55.9%) were male. At 30 days, there were no between-group differences in the change in functional status, fatigue, dyspnea, and self-efficacy from baseline. In multivariable analyses, between-group outcomes did not differ at 30 or 90 days. At 180 days, HF-related events and HF-related hospitalization were higher in the video group—odds ratios (95% CI): 1.42 (1.04, 1.94), P=.03; and 1.44 (1.05, 1.97), P=.03, respectively. In time-to-event adjusted analyses, video patients had earlier HF-related hospitalization, compared to UC patients—hazard ratio (95% CI) 1.32 (1.02, 1.72), P=.04.
Conclusions: Video education on recognition and control of danger signs or symptoms paradoxically increased HF-related events and hospitalization and decreased time to first HF-related hospitalization. Increased recognition of subtle HF signs or symptoms via video education is valuable but must be connected to patient or family self-care actions that reduce HF signs or symptoms.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03657459; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03657459
Conflicts of Interest: None declared.
Edited by B Dinesen; This is a non–peer-reviewed article. submitted 13.07.22; accepted 01.02.23; published 15.02.23Copyright
©Nancy Albert, Carol Babcock, Anna Maria Gray-Leyko, James Bena, Shannon Morrison, Dorothy Sayler, Michelle Levay. Originally published in Iproceedings (https://www.iproc.org), 15.02.2023.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in Iproceedings, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on https://www.iproc.org/, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.